Innovators World, Introduction, Overview

Moral Innovator Perspectives on Donald Trump

The glue that binds us is love. Our love of USA is rooted in our democracy, knowing that it is the worst form of government, except there is none better. We must therefore live with all the imperfections of a democracy. The most enlightening statistic in this week’s Presidential election was: Out of 232 million eligible voters (or 77% of total population), Hilary Clinton received 26%, Donald Trump received 26%, and “DID NOT VOTE” accounted for 46% (and third parties for the other 2%). In absolute numbers, Barack Obama received 66 million votes in 2012, compared to 59 million for Hilary. Mitt Romney received 61 million votes in 2012, compared to 59 million for Donald. In other words, 9 million less voters voted in 2016, and Mitt Romney would have beaten Hilary based on the number of votes received. Our challenge is to get the 46% non-voters to vote. Without a Constitutional amendment, we cannot change the electoral college. If it is true that we have one person one vote, Hilary would have won with the popular vote.

Because of the electoral college, the location of the voters also makes a difference. In five states (North Carolina, Florida, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Michigan), the difference was less than 180,000 votes in each state. In fact, if Hilary had received 70,000 votes more in Pennsylvania, 28,000 in Wisconsin, and 12,000 in Michigan, she would have received more than 270 electoral votes and won. The irony is that Hilary actually lost both Michigan and Wisconsin in the Democratic primaries to Bernie Sanders, yet they were not “battleground” states until near the very end of the campaign.

USA is a nation of immigrants. Native Americans arrived over 10,000 years ago, and Caucasians arrived 500 years ago. We gained independence from Britain in the year 1776 (240 years ago), ratified our Constitution in 1788, and George Washington was sworn in as the first President in 1789. Many of our Founding Fathers were slave owners, and about 1% of the total population were eligible to vote under various rules such as land ownership which was removed in 1828, after the Supreme Court used the Discovery Doctrine in 1823 to take away all Native Americans land ownership. Non-Caucasians became eligible voters in 1870, after the Civil War; women were allowed to vote in 1920; and the voting age was reduced to 18 in 1971. In other words, the only ineligible voters are children under 18, resident aliens and other people not officially recognized as US citizens. Today, our Constitution is the longest surviving written charter of government in the world, as amended 27 times (most recently in 1992).

The strength of our nation is in the values that we deliver from our hard work in combination with our diversity. In other words, there is no entitlement to value based on diversity alone. Diversity delivers value only in combination with hard work. Hard work does not always mean physical labor, as Bill Gates developed computer software, and Steve Jobs developed computer hardware. We know that the less educated Caucasians in rural America propelled Donald to victory. We can no longer ignore their issues for future elections. Until we address their issues, we may continue to be surprised in elections. Meanwhile, let’s observe if a very visible trend that affects wealth entitlements (by allowing wealthy families to transfer money from generation to generation) will be further reduced. The maximum estate tax rate was 77% between 1941-1976. Ronald Reagan reduced it to 55%; George W Bush reduced it to 45% and the current rate of 40% was reduced under Barack Obama.

Innovators World, Introduction, Overview, Uncategorized

Moral Innovator perspectives on 2016 Presidential Election

If we compare what is happening today to what have happened in history, USA is heading for a Civil War this century unless we collectively take action to protect our democracy.

Humanity has not changed much for 5,000 years. Four communities (Egyptians, Sumerians, Indians, and Chinese) represented over 90% of humanity 5,000 years ago. Egyptians became Christians; Sumerians became Muslims; Indians have been divided by religions, and Chinese remained largely atheists for 5,000 years. Today, Christians, Muslims, Indians and Chinese represent over 90% of humanity.

Among Christians, Catholics was the dominated sect between 1,600 and 1,000 years ago, when the Roman Empire controlled Europe. After the downfall of Western Roman Empire, Orthodox Christians split from the Catholics 1,000 years ago. Orthodox is still the dominant sect in Russia today.

Soon after the Roman Empire was extinguished in the form of Byzantine Empire in 1453, Catholic indulgences, including the infamous Pope Alexander VI who sold the reading of Rosary for a shorter time in purgatory before reaching heaven, led to the Protestant split in 1517 by Martin Luther and John Calvin. Today, our global leaders live in Protestant nations like the USA.

Without imperial influences after 1453, Catholics found an opportunity to sustain prosperity after Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon defeated the Muslim Moors in Granada and paid for the voyage by Christopher Columbus in 1492. It was the same infamous Pope Alexander VI (born in Spain) who drafted the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1493 that gave the world to Spain and Portugal. 20% of treasures extracted (i.e. taken) in North and South America were paid to the Spanish King and Catholics for several centuries. Britain started out as pirates and stole from the Spanish ships loaded with treasures from the Americas. After Britain defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, British East India Company was formed in 1600, followed by the Dutch East India Company in 1602 to directly compete for global treasures.

For 200 years after the 1588 Armada defeat, Spain (and other Christians) took millions of Africans as slaves to the Americas (that kept the population in Africa the same between 1600 and 1850 while the rest of the world’s population more than doubled). The victims include Native Americans who were almost annihilated. Despite these amoral acts, Spain still lost North America to Protestants.

Spain was left without external sources of wealth. A large wealth gap became apparent that led to the 1936-1939 civil war which was won by Francisco Franco who became a dictator until his death in 1975. King Juan Carlos I succeed Franco and led the Spanish transition to democracy today.

USA became a global leader through industrialization when the cotton gin based economy succeeded with slave labor. We prospered as a munitions supplier in both world wars. However, Korean Armistice, Vietnam War, and the Iraq/Afghanistan conflicts have drained American wealth, and US companies helped Muslims in Saudi Arabia establish ARAMCO and later the OPEC cartel that is transferring an average US$2 trillion/year since 1973. Just like Spain, USA wealth gap has emerged. Ronald Reagan was the first to introduce trickle-down economics, and Donald Trump is a beneficiary of trickle-down economics. There is a large base of less educated Americans who seek opportunities for their own American dreams. By focusing on gun control, we are distracted from the historically low inheritance tax that sustains the wealth gap. If not Donald Trump, there will be a stronger representative similar to Spain’s Francisco Franco. This stronger representative today is Hilary Clinton. We must remain diligent in monitoring her actions, or we will head for another civil war. For 2017, three cheers for our first female President!

diversity, Introduction, Opportunity, Overview, Uncategorized

Moral Innovator proposal for changing the world – one child at a time

We are clearly seeing increasing violence both domestically within the USA and worldwide these days. While the call for peace and calm can help get these incidents out of the immediate news headlines, we need a sustainable morally innovative solution that can take several generations if adults elect to work together, or several centuries if we collectively focus on educating our children.

Today, about one third of humanity follows the Christian faith.  This trend started over 500 years ago when the corrupt Spanish Pope Alexander VI declared that Spain and Portugal owned the world outside Europe in the Tordesillas Treaty.  The first ones to contest this declaration were other European Christians who innovatively created the corrupt State-sponsored Dutch East India Company and the even more corrupt British East India Company to gather resources needed to industrialize the world.  We know, for example, it was the British government who gave monopoly power to the British East India Company that produced opium in India and sold the illicit drugs into China (and almost bankrupted the Chinese economy).  The immoral Japanese military also helped take over 70,000 tons of silver out of China through illegal distribution of opium.

Another 20% of humanity today follows the Muslim faith, and Islam is the world’s fastest growing faith.  Since the first OPEC price increase in 1973, our newly industrialized world developed an insatiable appetite for fossil fuel, and an average US$2 trillion dollars per year have been transferred to Muslims each year.  Each time we fill up our car with fuel, or turn on the air conditioner anywhere in the world, we contribute to the demand for fossil fuel and eventually maintain or sustain the status quo that transfers wealth to the Muslims.  Another impact is global climate change which is a by-product of our industrialization and exasperates the fact that we are 20,000 years into the 100,000 year Milankovitch cycle of global warming today.

On a global scale, our most severe conflict has been driven by the Christians’ and Muslims’ efforts to convert all humans.  Unless we create a way that allow humans to believe in both Christianity and Islam, there is no way humanity can have peace when two significant faiths strive to convert the entire humanity into one faith.  Within this framework, the declaration of independence by Israel in 1948 was like introducing a spark in a fuel tank.  While the role (and population) of Israel has been similar to Hong Kong for the British Protestant Christians during the opium war, USA has added plenty of oxygen to the spark in a fuel tank when President George W. Bush decided to invade Iraq that spread the conflict between Christians and Muslims like forest fires.

Now is not the time to double down on our faith without reason.  We need to let our children thrive with knowledge of their places in the world in order to make the right decisions and make the world better.  Let us not baptize our infant children nor declare heaven belongs exclusively to any one faith,  claimed by both Christians and Muslims.  There is an alternative sustainable path to peace.

What is that alternative path?  We start with a very difficult challenge to understand and morally develop the age-appropriate motivations of our children.  In order to invoke the motivation hierarchy introduced by Abraham Maslow last century in a measurable way, let us try to map humanity into Maslow’s hierarchical layers of needs measured by wealth of humans.  We know that money cannot buy happiness, so these numbers should be modified by non-financial parameters:

  1. Two billion (~30%) humans on earth living below poverty. The number one focus for these two billion humans is to secure food for survival.  This is Maslow’s physiological layer.
  2. Five billion (~70%) humans seek safety through employment, police/fire protection, access to health care, investments, among other things. This is Maslow’s safety layer.
  3. Twelve million (~0.1%) millionaires living on earth seek friendship and family, among other things. This is Maslow’s love/belonging layer.
  4. 2,000 billionaires seek respect, confidence and achievements, among other things. This is Maslow’s esteem layer.  Donald Trump wants the US Presidency to try to excel in this layer.
  5. Essentially no one is free of prejudice and take actions based on facts, possibly except the Gates Foundation supported by Warren Buffet. This is Maslow’s self-actualization layer.

These layers cut across all humanity (including Christians and Muslims) and exist everywhere on earth, including the USA, the largest economy on earth.  Trying to separate African Americans and Caucasian Americans will not work.  It is not a matter of “Black Lives Matter Too” versus “All Lives Matter.”  We need hope and opportunities that differ among humans living in different layers of Maslow’s hierarchy.

No line can be drawn for humans living in different layers of Maslow’s hierarchy.  However, we can provide opportunities for our children living in different layers of Maslow’s hierarchy to seek their aspirations through education.  As long as our children learn the universally accepted Golden Rule (do unto others what you want others to do unto you) and believe there is hope to achieve their aspirations, we gain trust to respect our second amendment rights to bear arms, while reducing violence between police and citizens.  By adding moral innovations to the education curriculum, indiscriminate shootings in school will decline when our children and adults have the Golden Rule in mind.

Changes should be visible when we add the Moral Innovations framework into our education curriculum, including the Golden Rule.  Please encourage our children to do the right things as they thrive with knowledge of their places in the world.

Innovators World

Moral Innovators review of events leading up to the USA

Contrary to popular belief, the truth is the fact that Christopher Columbus never discovered USA. The Italian adventurer reached only the Caribbean Islands during his voyage in 1492. Even though he received approval from the Portuguese King for the voyage first, it was funding from the Spanish King that financed his 1492 voyage. It also appears that the Spanish King (Ferdinand the Catholic and his wife Isabella) used his treasures after expelling (The Fall of Granada) the Muslim Moors from Iberia to pay for Columbus’ voyage. The Spanish Inquisition, original started in 1480 to exert social and religious control, led to the Spanish ultimatum in 1501 in Granada to convert to Christianity or be expelled from Iberia. Perhaps credit can be given to the Muslims who facilitated Columbus’ voyage with their funds…

Upon Columbus’ return to Spain with news of the New World, the newly elected Catholic Pope Alexander VI of Spanish descent (who was among the most corrupt Popes in history) drafted the Treaty of Tordesillas (Valladolid Province, Spain) which was signed in 1494 by Portugal’s King John II and Spain’s King Ferdinand II, his wife Isabella and son Prince John to dispel Portugal’s claim to the New World. Territories east of the 370 meridian belonged to Portugal, and west of the meridian to Spain. This meridian crosses the present day Brazil which explains why Brazilians speak Portuguese, and Spanish is spoken elsewhere in Americas. The longest continuously occupied city in the USA is Florida’s St. Augustine, founded in 1565 by Spanish admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles. The Treaty of Tordesillas was the basis for Spanish Kings to collect 20% royalties on all trades with the Americas. This was an important source of wealth that made Spanish King Philip II one of the wealthiest humans on earth in the last millennium.

Since earth is round, two meridian lines were needed to define an area (or territories). The Treaty of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain) was signed in 1529 by Portugal’s King John III and Spanish King Charles V that defined Moluccas Antimeridian in Asia as the second line, giving all of Africa and essentially all of Asia to Portugal, even though Portugal did not strongly object to the initial Spanish trading post in Manila, Philippines in 1565. In fact, Philippines was named in honor of the Spanish King Philip II.

Note: Think about what this means. Without any discussions outside Portugal and Spain, the world was divided between them, and the author of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas was Pope Alexander VI, who had oversight over all Christians before the 1517 Protestant Reformation. Through these treaties, innovative Christians were the first to declare the world belongs to Christians, without any consideration of non-Christians. It is crystal clear in these treaties that Christians did not follow the Golden Rule: Do unto others what you want others to do unto you.

No one, including Britain and other European Christians, cared at the beginning. It did not surface as a topic of interest until the informal (undeclared) Anglo-Spanish War of 1585-1604 over Christianity: Spain’s Catholic King Philip II believed England’s Protestant Queen (Elizabeth I) was a heretic and unworthy to rule England. In 1588, Britain and Europeans outside Iberia discovered the wealth available in the Americas as they pondered the source of wealth for Spain’s King Phillip II to produce 130 ships and 26,000 sailors and soldiers to invade English from the North (i.e. from Ireland).

The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 had two major consequences:
1. Protestants gained confidence and grew as a major force within Christianity.
2. Britain, France, and Dutch Europeans observed the wealth accumulated by Spain from Americas.

There were many failed attempts to settle in the USA before 1600 by many countries. After 1588, there were more attempts but the risks were too high without government funding. To accumulate sufficient funds to explore the New World, Britain innovatively created the concept of “Company” and established the British East India Company in 1600, allowing multiple investors to accumulate sufficient funds to explore new wealth across the globe. British East India Company was formed to pursue trade with the Americas, but ended up trading mainly in Asia (and ruled India when it received monopoly power to trade in opium which the company taught the Indians in India to produce opium that likely spawned the illicit drug trade worldwide today). Netherlands followed with the Dutch East India Company (or VOC) in 1602 with monopoly colonial powers in Asia. In 1604, France granted monopoly rights of furs to Pierre Dugua Sieur de Monts that led to Canadian settlements like Quebec City in 1607. Britain sent over the first of 50,000 (criminal) convicts after first settling in Virginia’s Jamestown in 1607, before the arrival of the Mayflower in 1620.

It took about 150 years for Britain to impose the Stamp Tax in 1765. It was the hidden and illegal taxes that led to the Boston Tea Party (which was a tax revolt) in 1773 and eventually the US Revolution. It should be highlighted that factors that drove the rapid rise of Islam after its Hijra in 622ce also included high Christian taxes relative to Muslims who also offered higher religious tolerance than Christians. Today, USA is still working with a complicated tax system that has given us the biggest wealth gap ever, with 1% of super-rich Americans accounting for about 50% of all wealth. This is clearly against the referendum that led to the formation of our great nation.

Take this knowledge, do the right things together and make our world a better world.

Innovators World

Encourage USA to become a Moral Innovator

For at least 50 years USA has not always taken actions with knowledge, and the credibility of the USA has been severely damaged as a result. For example, we told the world there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and we could not find them. Even after spending trillions of dollars that have contributed to our budget deficit, Iraq is ranked #5 in countries that HATE the USA, or 67% of Iraqi hate Americans, according to the US Global Leadership Project. More Iraqi citizens hate Americans than Iranians or Egyptians.
In the past, USA acted without knowledge in China by supporting Nationalist China that eventually lost to the Communist Chinese. USA acted without knowledge in Vietnam when the Americans went to war against the majority of Vietnamese. We are not being loved by the Afghani people, and Pakistani hates Americans more than the Iraqi… Why are we investing trillions of dollars just to be hated?
Today, Secretary Hagel and the Obama administration have voiced strong support for Japan, even though Japan has not redressed its atrocities during World War II, and continue to teach their children Japan went to war to defend Japan. Does this map look like Japan is defending itself?

1942 map-japan

As we celebrate over 100 years of Cherry Blossom Festivals in Washington DC, we need to remember that Commodore Perry forcibly imposed American interests onto the Japanese in 1865. This effort coincided with the Japanese Meiji Reformation, away from the Samurai and toward guns and cannons.

There is no doubt Japanese decided to change its culture to become modernized. The development has not been even, as the Japanese personality (if guided by their nationalists) is extremely aggressive. Japanese were aligned with Nazi Germans during World War II, and the most intensive massacre was the murder and rape of hundreds of thousands of unarmed civilians in December, 1937. Women were captured so they can be raped repeatedly by Japanese soldiers, with the gentle label of “comfort women.” How is it possible that Japan never had to face up to these atrocities? Not only has there not been redress, the Japanese continue to visit the shrine of the military leaders that ordered the massacres and “comfort ladies.” Today, Japan is pursuing expansionist policies, perhaps with American encouragement to relieve us of the burden of global defense.

Yes, Americans dropped the atomic bombs in Japan. However, the Americans have been paying for this atrocity by paying for the defense of Japan for the last 70 years. We know that the US Defense Department spends hundreds of billions of dollars each year. That annual amount was saved for 70 years which allowed the Japanese to develop consumer electronics and automobiles using American patents!!! That is the price that the Americans have paid to help the Japanese economy recover. Once their radical nationalists were removed from power, the Japanese have completely reinvigorated as the third largest global economy today, after several decades as the second largest economy on earth with only 100 million people.

We learned that personalities are difficult to change, so we need to remain diligent to prevent the ultra-aggressive faction of the Japanese nationalists from power again. In 2013, an unrepentant Abe was the first Japanese serving Prime Minister to visit the Yasukuni War Shrine since 2006. While the Japanese logically should be responsible for its own defense, there is a fine line between defense and offense. The Americans must start with knowledge, not just our belief that the Japanese will follow the Americans (remember Pearl Harbour). Further, we need to examine American motives for taking action with our beliefs without knowledge.
Let us examine the facts related to what is now Okinawa (which was Ryukyu Islands before Japan unilaterally declared this was Japanese territory in 1879):

After two atomic bombs were dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the 6th and 9th of August, 1945, Japan’s Emperor Hirohito surrendered to the Allies by sending his foreign minister as a representative to sign the Instrument of Surrender on the deck of USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945. (His radio broadcast announced the acceptance of terms of the Potsdam Declaration at noon on August 15, 1945.) Commodore Perry’s flag was flown on the USS Missouri that day, as General Douglas MacArthur was a direct descendant of the Perry family. The Potsdam Declaration (issued by the Allies on July 26th) states: “Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshu(本州), Hokkaido(北海道), Kyushu(九州), and Shikoku(四国) and such minor islands as the Allies determine per the Cairo Declaration. The Cairo Declaration was issued on November 27th, 1943 with two relevant provisions: 1) All territories Japan had won from China, such as Manchuria, Formosa (Taiwan), and the Pescadores (Penghu) shall be restored to the Republic of China, and 2) Japan will also be expelled from all other territories taken by violence and greed. The first provision did not limit the territories to listed territories. It seems the Ryukyu Islands were taken by greed, and Japan should be expelled according to the second provision. Instead, Japan innovatively added the Okinawa Prefecture to the Island of Kyushu, but this was clearly a greedy decision. If Taiwan was occupied in 1895 and returned, why should not Ryukyu which was occupied in 1879, only 16 years earlier? USA is not an objective party with military bases there.

KyuShu and Okinawa

This map shows Islands of Kyushu clearly isolates Ryukyu Islands that is labelled as Okinawa in the lower left hand side of this map. Japan unilaterally forced the King of Ryukyu Islands Sho Tai (1843-1901) to move to Tokyo in 1879. This is what the Cairo Declaration dictates: “…that Japan will be expelled from all territories taken by violence and greed…” This is only 16 years before the Island of Taiwan was colonized in 1895 (via the Treaty of Shimonoseki) and returned to China in 1945.

Please, USA, donot act with self-interest by aligning with Japan on territorial disputes without facts! Our credibility depends on it.

Innovators World

USA as “land of opportunity” through industrialization

Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) started working for his father’s ferry and grew his shipping business to ocean steamboats before becoming the largest US railroad tycoon after the civil war with monopoly of rail lines around New York City. He built the Grand Central Station, and helped a young and near-bankrupt John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) transport petroleum products like kerosene. Already a Christian (Baptist), Rockefeller was seldom late for meetings. When he was late for the train to meet Vanderbilt the first time in 1863 and the train crashed, Rockefeller renewed his faith with a mission. By promising a consistent quality of petroleum products that minimized accidents, he captured 98% of the US oil refinery capacity in a company called Standard Oil. When the railroad industry formed a cartel (similar to oil’s OPEC today) to increase prices to transport oil products, Rockefeller built pipelines to bypass railroads.
Pennsylvania Railroad’s Tom Scott (1823-1881) lost his business after Rockefeller took away 50% of his company’s revenue. Scott’s personal assistant, Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), later became the steel industry magnate, before he sold his business in 1901 to JP Morgan (1837-1913) to focus on philanthropy.
JP Morgan invested in Thomas Edison’s (1847-1931) Direct Current (DC) electricity which eventually lost to George Westinghouse (1846-1914) who invested in Nichola Tesla’s (1856-1943) Alternating Current (AC) electricity, partly because DC currents can not economically travel more than about 2 miles. As a financier, JPMorgan created General Electric with Edison’s patents in 1892 (and the only one of the 12 original Dow Jones index companies in 1896 still part of the index today), created US Steel with 67% marketshare after purchasing Andrew Carnegie’s businesses, and worked with Rockefeller (who was concerned about his kerosene business when electricity became available) during the financial panic of 1907 to acquire control of Westinghouse’s businesses. Overall, JP Morgan created several monopoly-like businesses.
The closest to a monopoly was Rockefeller’s Standard Oil monopoly which was broken up in 1911 by the US Supreme Court under the auspices of The Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890. However, the 1998 British Petroleum (BP) merger with Amoco (Standard Oil of Indiana) and 1999 merger of ExxonMobil (Standard Oil of New Jersey and Standard Oil of New York) may have re-defined anti-trust in the USA, especially since the OPEC cartel has thrived for the last 40 years.

Innovators World, Introduction, Overview

Moral Innovators’ view of the Bible and faith in general

Your faith between yourself and God is absolute and cannot be questioned. However, institutions of faith such as a church, mosque, synagogue, temple, etc. typically interpret your relationship with God through their views (or lens) of faith which often lead to conflicts. We have a separation of church and state doctrine in the USA which keeps our faith out of our government, even as we are “one nation under God.”

Institutions of faith, just like other entities, require funding to thrive or survive. Moral Innovators work hard to earn a comfortable living, pay taxes to receive support from our government, and donate time and/or money to receive support and strengthen our relationships with God. As we donate time and/or money to our institutions of faith, we must be mindful of our appropriate moral standards that should not be violated.

The Bible is the most read document on earth, available in 518 languages and various parts of the Bible is available in 2,798 languages. The original language was mostly written in Hebrew (and some Aramaic) in the Old Testament, and Greek in the New Testament. One person who spent decades studying the bible and has the language skills to read the “original” Bible is Professor Bart Ehrman, the Chairman of the Religious Studies Department at University of North Carolina Chapel Hills. He was raised a Protestant Christian, and went to Christian schools including the Princeton Seminary School. His wife is still a devoted Christian, and they have two children.

After spending decades to try to read the original text of the bible, he finds:
1. There are far fewer texts of the Hebrew Bible. The standard editions of the Hebrew Bible, in Hebrew, depend on the readings of one manuscript that was produced around the year 1000ce.
2. There is no original text of any of the 27 New Testament books which were all written in Greek. There are many differences among the 5,000+ copies of the New Testament that dates back to the 3rd century.

While most of the differences are minor and donot matter, there are some significant differences that do matter, such as:
1. Does Luke’s Gospel teach a doctrine of atonement (that Christ’s death atones for sins)?
2. Does John’s Gospel teach that Christ is the “unique God” himself?
3. Is the doctrine of the Trinity ever explicitly stated in the New Testament?

After spending decades of reading the original bibles in their original languages and multiple versions, he concludes that the Bible is inerrant (i.e. perfect) is a completely modern idea, not more than 100 years old. There are at least 10 popular verses that were NOT part of the original New Testament in Greek listed in his book: Four verses in the Book of John; four verses in the Book of Luke; and two verses in the Book of Mark.

Prof. Ehrman has written many books, including How Jesus became God, Lost Christianities, and Misquoting Jesus which can help Moral Innovators who want to understand the moral standards behind our relationships with God. Moral Innovators should be open minded to engage in productive dialogues across religions and with philosophies and non-faith believers.