Innovators World, Introduction, Overview

Moral Innovator Perspectives on Race Relations

Focusing on skin color within the USA is insufficient to improve race relations. By looking globally we can gain knowledge from our past to make future improvements with integrity, and re-discover we must follow a universally accepted Golden Rule: Do unto others what you want others to do unto you.

The worst human atrocity committed against fellow humans took place 300-500 years ago after European Christians committed genocide in the Americas in the name of Christianity (worse than World War II, World War I, Holocaust, Chinese Cultural Revolution, etc.).  Up to 100 million humans perished which represent 80% of Native Americans and Africans transported to the Americas as slaves. There is scant record of many rich pre-Columbian cultures in the Americas (e.g. 5,000 year old Sacred City of Caral in Supe Valley, Peru), and Africa’s population was flat between the years 1600-1850 while the rest of the world’s population more than doubled. Why is Columbus, who never set foot on USA soil, celebrated in the USA? Why is Andrew Jackson, who spent his life killing Native Americans, celebrated on $20 dollar bills? Why is Lord Jeff Amherst (1717-1797) a namesake for a city in Massachusetts? Amherst approved the intentional distribution of blankets used by smallpox victims to Native Americans and proclaimed his willingness to adopt “any other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race.” His grandnephew Bill (1773-1857) inherited Jeff’s title of Lord in 1797, and went to China in 1816 where he failed to negotiate trade with China which ignited The Opium Wars, then he went on to India and commanded the first Burmese War of 1824 that killed 15,000 British soldiers at a cost of £13 million.

60% of all humans born in the last 200 years have followed Christianity or Islam, much more than the rest of the world largely represented by Indians and Chinese. The key innovation that drove human progress was industrialization which was led by USA/European Christians. The largest transfer of wealth through this industrialization was the forced import of opium into China (against Chinese laws), backed by gunboats, to take an estimated (2014) retail value of $2 trillion per year from China, mostly during the reign of Empress Dowager Cixi who ruled China for 50 years. China fell from the largest economy on earth in the year 1820 with 35% of global GDP to almost declaring bankruptcy in 1902 if not for a 39 year financing to pay Christian countries like Russia and Germany for the suppression of the patriotic Chinese Boxers’ Rebellion. USA also received payment, but returned some to help establish Qinghua University, a top school in China. USA became the global leader with 27-35% of global GDP between the years 1950-2001 on the shoulders of the largest middle class on earth after Henry Ford started to pay premium wages to his workers, but had to share its wealth mostly with Muslims beginning in 1973 when the OPEC cartel steeply increased prices. An estimated (2014) $1 trillion per year cash profit has been paid to OPEC to quench the thirst for energy to sustain industrialization. Both Christians and Muslims have concentrated their wealth in the last 40 years to widen the wealth gap, as the USA/worldwide Christians squeeze the middle class and a super majority of Muslims remain in poverty. Meanwhile, China has lifted more humans out of poverty than the rest of the world by sacrificing their environment.

We do not differentiate Arabs from Jews in the Middle East by skin color. The Chinese, Koreans and other Asians hate the Japanese not because of the color of their skin, but because the Japanese captured and forced over 400,000 women into 400 locations where they were raped by Japanese soldiers multiple times every day until they died. (In Yunnan, China, each Japanese soldier was given two tickets every week to rape innocent females in one of these 400 locations, and these tickets have been shown on documentaries and can still be inspected.)  The Japanese also massacred ~300,000 civilians and raped over 20,000 females in Nanjing, China over a 40 day period where soldiers competed for how many civilians they killed. While forgiveness is a virtue, the Japanese have not atoned for their atrocities. In fact, convicted war criminals in the International Court of Justice are memorialized in a Japanese shrine where top government officials visit every year. This is akin to the USA making August 6th and 9th as Little Boy and Fat Man (codenames for the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Holidays with celebratory parades that killed 129,000 Japanese.  To get a glimpse of The Golden Rule, just look at the Japanese reaction to the gang rape of local girls near the Okinawa US Military Base by US Military Servicemen.  A reason the largest US Military Base in Asia is moving is due to the strong opposition of the local residents against these isolated incidents of raping local girls.  Of course, going back one more step, US Military should never have been stationed in Okinawa in the first place because Japan was supposed to be “expelled from all … territories taken by violence and greed…” based on the November 27th 1943 Cairo Declaration which the Allies dictated in accordance with the Potsdam Declaration which was the term of the Japanese unconditional surrender announced in Japanese radio on August 15th, 1945 and signed on the deck of USS Missouri on September 2nd, 1943.  Okinawa, as we know it today, was unilaterally taken by Japan in 1879 and renamed Okinawa Prefecture from the former Kingdom of Ryukyu.  Japan forced the King of Ryukyu Sho Tai (1843-1901) to move to Tokyo in 1897, even as Ryukyu paid tributes to China for over 450 years, with the last tribute left Ryukyu in the year 1874.  This is the subject of another blog…

How do we not focus on skin color or geography? We still have the American Dream where anyone can maximize their potential within their own lifetime. We think of people like Bill Gates, but he left a legacy of monopolistic practices at Microsoft. We can improve race relations by creating a network that focuses on opportunities with positive legacies while following the Golden Rule.  Use the Golden Rule as the foundation of our great society.  We clearly forgot the Golden Rule when policemen used excessive force to kill innocent citizens in Missouri, New York, Ohio and other places.

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Blockchain, Innovators World, Opportunity, Overview, Uncategorized

Moral Innovator Perspectives on Blockchains

Blockchains represent the computer hardware and software behind the bitcoins application. It is one of the hottest topics in the technology world today. Knowing we may step into stereotypes, it is instructive to observe blockchains from a moral innovation perspective to observe how humanity is changing.

To define a blockchain in its most basic form, it is the ability to communicate (from sender to receiver) information that can be valued by the sender and the receiver which define an application (such as bitcoin as a currency). The communications process itself uses the cloud to connect multiple servers with data that can be interpreted from one server to the next using encryption. The combination of not knowing how many servers in what configuration in this process, along with the encryption technology among each pair of servers make this “blockchain” impossible to hack with what we know today.

In a school, the most sensitive information include the student health records (i.e. HIPAA compliance) and transcripts. A blockchain application in a school could be the school issuing “coins” to students to carry their transcript wherever they go, without having to request a transcript from the school, as long as the recipient of the transcript (e.g. a college) accepts the transcript protected by the blockchain.

Even though customized blockchains can work now, it can be very expensive – too expensive for applications like transcripts. To achieve economy of scale, blockchain applications require an infrastructure with standardized protocols and/or very large transactions like movements of currencies. It is similar but not exactly comparable to the Internet released by DARPA in the 20th century, waiting for HTML(language) and IP (communication protocol) to emerge.

From a Moral Innovator perspective, the values of over 90% of humanity come from Christians, Muslims, Indians and Chinese. Christians and Muslims follow monotheistic values where Christians drive innovations. Indians and Chinese follow community based moral values where Chinese drive trade. (Humans cannot live off morality alone because morality does not feed us.) Less than 10% of humanity lives outside these four communities, the largest of whom are the Japanese. As outliers, Japanese have demonstrated that they can sacrifice their culture such as shogunate in order to emulate the Christian innovations to the extreme. It was the Japanese that delivered the greatest intensity of massacre during the second world war – more intense than the holocaust – when over 300,000 mostly women and children were killed over a 50 day period in 1937. About 100,000 additional Chinese were victims of chemical warfare experiments, the most notorious the unit 731 battalion based in Harbin, China. What makes this worse is the fact that war criminals are still celebrated in the Yasukuni Shrine in Japan today.

Even though blockchains started in the 1990s, it was the Japanese that introduced the bitcoin application in 2008. Large companies like IBM and Google seek the very large transactions (such as payment for the millions of barrels of oil transacted everyday) or the elusive “Big Data.” Without any infrastructure, Christians especially associated with Silicon Valley propelled progress of this innovation after 2008. As a potential instrument of trade to support their One Belt One Road initiative, China is working very hard to suppress the volume of activities through Initial Coin Offerings (ICO) because the infrastructure simply does not exist. Germany is just now beginning to see ICOs and travelling to Silicon Valley to explore how blockchains can correlate to product qualify from standardized processes where the Germans excel. ICO valuation, as described by a Venture Capitalist, is “way out there.”

Without confidence on our innate morality, and without knowledge of a visible path to scalability, Moral Innovators need to focus on the value of the applications that come close to being accepted by coin buyers and sellers. As of April 2018, no compelling visible path exists for any ICO.

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Uncategorized

Moral Innovators perspective on US democracy

The USA may have the most sophisticated democracy on earth, but it is not a true democracy when Presidents have been elected by electoral college. In the “Federalist Papers” #39, James Madison proposed a mixture of state and population based elections for the President, even though he himself believed that a popular vote would be ideal. The key obstacle to a popular vote at that time was the difficulty in getting consensus given the prevalence of slavery.

In other words, we are still living in the shadows of slavery, and the situation is getting worse. The margin of Hillary Clinton’s popular vote victory with 65.9 million votes was 2.9 million votes greater than Donald Trump’s 63.0 million votes. This margin of victory is substantially greater than the combined total of 3-4 previous Presidents who lost the popular vote (1876 Rutherford Hayes lost by 0.3 million, 1888 Benjamin Harrison lost by 0.1 million, 2000 George W Bush lost by 0.5 million, and 1824 John Quincy Adams won by contingent election but lost the popular vote by 0.1 million). It should not be surprising that Donald Trump is the least popular US President in his first year than any other President in US history, especially given the alleged collusion with Russia.

104 years after the 17th Amendment to the US Constitution which finally gave Americans the right to elect Senators, it is time to change the electoral college to a popular vote, closer to a true democracy. Let’s compare the process that led to the 17th Amendment to understand what it takes to make this change.

Until the year 1913 when the 17th Amendment was ratified, the US Senate was a “millionaire’s club” where the legislature selected the Senators from each state. The first attempts to change to a popular vote happened in 1826 when the House of Representatives proposed this change. The timing of this first proposal was two years after the Discovery Doctrine was used by the US Supreme Court as basis for granting land ownership to the European discoverers instead of Native Americans.

It took 87 years for the 17th Amendment to be ratified. In addition to the high pressure of campaign costs which require deep pockets, the GOP has multiple initiatives to re-draw congressional districts in the 21st century that are delivering some alarming results. MSNBC’s Rachel Maddow reported an analysis of the November 2017 Doug Jones victory over Roy Moore as US Senator in Alabama: Even though Doug Jones won the popular vote in Alabama State-wide which includes six congressional districts, if all votes were counted by congressional districts, and we let the congressional districts dictate the winner, Roy Moore would have won by a 5-1 margin.

In this age of internet, moral innovators will be tested to take action and deliver a true US democracy. The new tax law just delivered an estimated $4 billion to Donald Trump family in the form of zero estate taxes while millions of Americans will likely lose medical insurance. We will not hear about these developments as the ultra-rich dictates Donald Trump’s approach to self-aggrandize at the expense of our democracy. The alternative is to remove our claim to be a democratic society.

Happy 2018!

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Innovators World, Opportunity, Overview, Uncategorized

Moral Innovators perspective on where we are today, looking forward

Looking at humanity from the beginning of time, we know that humanity created morality about 2500 years ago when Socrates in Greece, Ashoka in India, and Confucius in China described the virtues to strive for in order to live peacefully together. Christians and Muslims have been influenced by Socrates. Ashoka remains influential in India today as his wheel is prominently displayed in the middle of the Indian flag. Confucian values still influence Chinese behaviors as Chairman Mao proclaimed: The laws written by students of Confucius from Qin Dynasty over 2,000 years ago remain in effect in the 20th century. Chinese President Xi Jinping continues with the development of harmonious societies based on “belts and roads” trade that modernize the Silk Road.

Two millennia later, Portugal approved Columbus’ voyage before Spain, but had no money to finance a voyage. Spanish King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella defeated the Muslims in the battle of Granada in 1491 which probably financed the Columbus voyage in 1492, before the Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI drafted the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1493 that claimed the entire world for Spain and Portugal, irrespective of the fact that millions of people live around the world.

In other words, morality evolved independently for 2,000 years and we are talking through each other across cultures because the definition of right and wrong has evolved inconsistently around the world. Christians and Muslim interpret morality through religions that are in absolute contradiction with each other. Non-Christians go to hell, and Non-Muslims go to hell. The end result is everyone on earth is condemned to hell since no one can believe in Islam and Christianity at the same time. Among Muslims and Christians, nearly half the world’s population in India and China has no say in their destiny.

Britain became prominent as pirates who stole treasures from ships returning from the Americas. They turned greedy after the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588 and created the British East India Company (BEIC) 1600 to steal treasures from around the world. BEIC survived longer than its similarly corrupt cousin Dutch East India Company partly because the British government granted BEIC monopoly power in opium trade, before the entire world stole what they can in China through opium (e.g. 70,000 tons of silver) within 80 years. USA broke away from Britain 250 years ago. For 200 years (with exceptions like Jeffersonian democracy), USA gave voting power to Caucasian adult males with property ownership, supported by the Supreme Court Chief Justice’s 1823 decision that took land from Native Americans and gave it to European “discoverers.” USA tried hard to reach moral high ground as a global leader which has been completely annihilated by Donald Trump who stole the Presidency.

A century ago, Rudolph Steiner started anthroposophy that respects, but does not follow religions. Anthroposophy incorporates Indian karma and re-incarnation, but not yet the Chinese Confucian philosophies. Anthroposophy integrates mental, physical and spiritual development of children and emulates an egalitarian society. It is the largest secondary school system not affiliated with any religion. By incorporating Chinese morality, it can be nurtured into a global benchmark for educating responsible adults and moral innovators.

Those who ignore history are likely to repeat it. Donald Trump is not only ignoring history, he is blaming history to support his fake reality TV show at the White House. His main goals includes $1 billion income for himself by eliminating the Estate Tax for the rich. Hopefully he will remain an anomaly in future US history.

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Innovators World, Opportunity, Uncategorized

Moral Innovators’ perspectives on making America great again

On this Thanksgiving Day 2017, USA is a divided country focused on history of sexual harassment by civil servants and Hollywood stars in the last 50 years. While it is fantastic that we are addressing an important issue, we are distracted from the theme of making America great again.

With less than 5% of the global population, USA once commanded as high as 34% of global GDP, or about one out of every three dollars of economic activity in the world was American as recently as 50 years ago. We may still have the #1 or #2 economy in the world today, but our share of global GDP has declined to less than 18% on PPP basis. Making America great again means reversing the trend of declining share of USA in global GDP. The current tax package that eliminates the estate taxes will give Donald Trump another $1 billion to his family which definitely will not help reverse the decline in US share of global GDP.

What will make America great again? We need to understand the world around us, and work hard to add value through moral innovations. This is a lot more difficult than just focusing on innovations without regards to morality which history has shown to be unsustainable (including the current tax package which is innovative but without morality). To illustrate, let’s focus on blockchain technologies that deliver privacy, not speculation on currencies (like bitcoin) which George Soros has proven 20 years ago that could cause havoc in the crisis that impacted Asia and soon followed by the internet bubble burst.

How do we know if we are making efforts to understand the world around us? A metric is to know how many Americans hold US passports to travel overseas. Holding a passport does not guarantee that we travel overseas, and this metric is skewed by about 44 million out of 326 million total Americans who were not US citizens at birth. Nonetheless, it is instructive to look at the trend of passport holders under our last four Presidents: HWBush, Clinton, WBush, and Obama. Under both the HWBush and Clinton administrations, the number of US passport holders more than doubled. This trend has declined to less than 100% under WBush and less than 50% under the Obama administration. In all, only 40% of all Americans hold US passports today. The 40% figure is even lower if we take into consideration that the 44 million American immigrants have a higher likelihood of holding passports.

This may be an important factor why USA is divided today: One third of us travel with passports (and know our declining global position), one third of us are passionate and unwavering Trump supporters, the final one third determines who will be elected in the next election.

Remember, Donald Trump was NOT a four year Ivy League graduate and he was not a top student. He was a third year transfer student into The Wharton School. When he graduated from University of Pennsylvania, he was not on the Deans List which was made up of the top 15% of his class the year he graduated. Please don’t let a fake Ivy League graduate who was not among the top 15% of his class fool you by making the White House a reality TV show. Get to know your neighbors and friends who have worldly experience and thrive by knowing your place in the world. Let’s do the right things and make this world a better place.

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diversity, Innovators World, Overview, Uncategorized

Moral Innovators perspectives on Making America Great Again

At 228 years old, United States of America has the longest sustained Constitution in the world today. There have been ups and downs to USA’s growth, but generally one growth path from the 1770s to the 1950s, and decline after the 1950s through today. How can we reverse the trend to be great again?

Let us look at history before we project forward.

Our Founding Fathers started as highly motivated immigrants in search of better lives. They overcame British oppression through the 1773 Boston Tea Party. After the Constitution was ratified, the very innovative Americans imposed the 1823 Discovery Doctrine on Native Americans to take land ownership and leveraged slavery in the production of cotton and coolies in construction of the transcontinental railway through most of the 19th century. These actions of low morality transitioned during the Gilded Age that provided concentrated wealth to Rockefellers, Carnegies and Morgans who often turned into philanthropists partly because the estate tax rate was as high as 77%. In the 20th century, Henry Ford helped create the middle-class by giving high wages to workers to buy homes and cars. The USA expansion continued through the unofficial entry into the second world war with the Lend Lease program in 1941 until Pearl Harbor, and sustained growth after the second world war with the Marshall Plan. With about 5% of global population, USA commanded 35% of global GNP at its apex in the 1950s.

Lack of experience in a globalized world has stymied our growth. Arrogance marked the beginning of the downturn when President Eisenhower was convinced by Winston Churchill to implement Project Ajax, a 1953 coup that imposed the Shah onto the Iranians, against their will. We fooled ourselves in the Vietnam War when General Westmoreland publicly stated “Vietnamese do not value their lives” in the documentary movie “Hearts and Minds.” These mistakes correlated to the decline of our share of global GNP to 16% today, despite innovations like internet, Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Walmart, etc.

Looking domestically, an estimated 64% of Americans have never left US borders. Our K-12 education never taught us about discovery doctrine nor project ajax. Hidden behind the aura of religions like Christianity are values of superiority. The original sermons delivered by Jesus focused on loving thy neighbor. As a messenger of God, Mohammad created an egalitarian religion 1400 years ago, before the Chinese Mongolians defeated Muslims in Damascus and Aleppo 800 years old that changed Islam into the current form of women oppression under the name of Islamic fundamentalism .

We are changing the ways we approach education and redress past inequities with programs like Affirmation Action. Textbooks are acknowledging the annihilation of Native Americans. However, these changes did not happen uniformly across the USA. A large swath of Americans not living in east or west coasts of the USA still have not changed their values partly because changes to their education have not happened fast enough. They associate the American decline to Affirmative Action and new immigrants. Among early evidence of their strength was the high rating of the TV show “Dukes of Hazzard” in the 1980s. Donald Trump found a way through bullying and intimidation to reach the US Presidency without winning the popular vote, in violation of the definition of democracy. It is not surprising that Americans who believe in white supremacy feel their representative is in the White House.

What about the path forward?

There is no magic dust that can make change happen overnight. Please remove our emotions and develop a sustainable path forward. There will be ups and downs, but the path to growth requires a balance of innovations with integrity. There are two key dimensions:

1. Let innovation thrive. This includes the continuation of Silicon Valley practices to find the best talent anywhere on earth. For example, we may lead the world in Global Positioning System (GPS) with 5 meter accuracy today. China’s Big Dipper will have more satellites with encrypted accuracy of 0.1 meter. If left alone, Big Dipper will become the global standard this century.

2. Encourage global education throughout the USA by including topics like the Discovery Doctrine and Project Ajax. Broaden the horizon of the 64% of Americans who have never left the US border. This disparity of knowledge is a factor in our divided USA. We need to past the tipping point as defined by Malcolm Gladwell to embrace our globalized world.

The only constant in life is change. We must embrace change and do the right things together!

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Innovators World

Donald Trump and the changing composition of humanity

Within his first year of Presidency, Donald Trump already has a legacy. Under his watch, USA lost its position as a global leader. His strengths highlight the Christian focus on innovations with very little regard for morality. His weaknesses accelerate the US decline in global standing. We now have a visible turning point of USA’s decline which lowers the standing of Christianity among humanity of Christians, Muslims, Indians and Chinese.

Donald Trump is a product of the US society, trained to focus on his self-interests, not public goods. He is doing what he was taught to do. He sought a more prestigious education as a third-year transfer student from Fordham University in New York City to Wharton class of 1968 which had 366 students. Donald Trump did not graduate in the top 15% of his class (he was not among the 56 students on the Dean’s List). As a realtor, the government may be just a tool to get the public behind his properties.

In business school, we were taught to find a niche to deliver returns on investments, often taking the path of least resistance. Large businesses lobby the government for favorable legislation. As early as 1823, a highly innovative but amoral Supreme Court decision from the First Chief Justice John Marshall changed land ownership of the entire USA to European Christians. This “Discovery Doctrine” declared all Native Americans were tenants of Christian landlords. We can still see the consequence of this decision by looking at the electoral map today: Republicans control the land in between the coasts while Democrats control major cities in the east and west coasts. If we elect the President based on land ownership, Republicans would dominate national elections.

Election polling did not capture the difference between popular vote and electoral college. Facing defeat, Donald Trump openly called for the Russians to hack into and leak the Hilary Clinton emails. There is increasing evidence that his team, especially Mike Flynn who is a Democrat, colluded with Russians and did just that. In turn, we have heard the strongest Donald Trump support behind Flynn who is not part of his family. Time will give us the needed truth behind what happened in the 2016 election. To paraphrase a Christian motto: May the Truth Set us Free.

Instead of focusing on his tweets, let us defend our values by enforcing our conflicts of interest rules and regulations. Don’t let our government remove the estate tax. Wealth gap will widen if we allow the wealthy to legally keep their assets across generations. We relied on IRS regulations to capture Al Capone, and forced illegally obtained wealth to revert back to the government. Don’t let Donald Trump use the POTUS position to accumulate his wealth. He has already obtained six more trademarks in June 2017, with a cumulative total of at least 123 registered and provisionally approved trademarks in China alone. Sanctions against his empire will be more effective than being distracted by his tweets.

60% of all humans born in the last 200 years have followed either the Christian or the Muslim faith. With the decline of the USA driven by Donald Trump, that percentage may dip below 50% in the next 200 years. It is sad to experience the decline of USA accelerated by Donald Trump.

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Innovators World, Introduction, Overview

Moral Innovator Perspectives on Donald Trump

The glue that binds us is love. Our love of USA is rooted in our democracy, knowing that it is the worst form of government, except there is none better. We must therefore live with all the imperfections of a democracy. The most enlightening statistic in this week’s Presidential election was: Out of 232 million eligible voters (or 77% of total population), Hilary Clinton received 26%, Donald Trump received 26%, and “DID NOT VOTE” accounted for 46% (and third parties for the other 2%). In absolute numbers, Barack Obama received 66 million votes in 2012, compared to 59 million for Hilary. Mitt Romney received 61 million votes in 2012, compared to 59 million for Donald. In other words, 9 million less voters voted in 2016, and Mitt Romney would have beaten Hilary based on the number of votes received. Our challenge is to get the 46% non-voters to vote. Without a Constitutional amendment, we cannot change the electoral college. If it is true that we have one person one vote, Hilary would have won with the popular vote.

Because of the electoral college, the location of the voters also makes a difference. In five states (North Carolina, Florida, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Michigan), the difference was less than 180,000 votes in each state. In fact, if Hilary had received 70,000 votes more in Pennsylvania, 28,000 in Wisconsin, and 12,000 in Michigan, she would have received more than 270 electoral votes and won. The irony is that Hilary actually lost both Michigan and Wisconsin in the Democratic primaries to Bernie Sanders, yet they were not “battleground” states until near the very end of the campaign.

USA is a nation of immigrants. Native Americans arrived over 10,000 years ago, and Caucasians arrived 500 years ago. We gained independence from Britain in the year 1776 (240 years ago), ratified our Constitution in 1788, and George Washington was sworn in as the first President in 1789. Many of our Founding Fathers were slave owners, and about 1% of the total population were eligible to vote under various rules such as land ownership which was removed in 1828, after the Supreme Court used the Discovery Doctrine in 1823 to take away all Native Americans land ownership. Non-Caucasians became eligible voters in 1870, after the Civil War; women were allowed to vote in 1920; and the voting age was reduced to 18 in 1971. In other words, the only ineligible voters are children under 18, resident aliens and other people not officially recognized as US citizens. Today, our Constitution is the longest surviving written charter of government in the world, as amended 27 times (most recently in 1992).

The strength of our nation is in the values that we deliver from our hard work in combination with our diversity. In other words, there is no entitlement to value based on diversity alone. Diversity delivers value only in combination with hard work. Hard work does not always mean physical labor, as Bill Gates developed computer software, and Steve Jobs developed computer hardware. We know that the less educated Caucasians in rural America propelled Donald to victory. We can no longer ignore their issues for future elections. Until we address their issues, we may continue to be surprised in elections. Meanwhile, let’s observe if a very visible trend that affects wealth entitlements (by allowing wealthy families to transfer money from generation to generation) will be further reduced. The maximum estate tax rate was 77% between 1941-1976. Ronald Reagan reduced it to 55%; George W Bush reduced it to 45% and the current rate of 40% was reduced under Barack Obama.

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